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Leon County Democrat Group

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Robert Yates
Robert Yates

Study Group Ch52



Conclusions: Our survey results show that most of Korean gynecologic oncologists still prefer oral progestogens for conservative management of EH, notwithstanding the many successful reports on the LNG-IUS. As a follow-up evaluation method, dilatation and curettage is mostly used. To identify the optimum therapy, a randomized controlled trial comparing the LNG-IUS with continuous oral progestogens is required. Furthermore, a large-scale prospective study to confirm the most reliable technique for follow-up evaluation is necessary.




Study Group Ch52



Symptom-triggered regimens have been shown to result in the administration of less total medication and to require a shorter duration of treatment.11,12 In one randomized, double-blind controlled trial,11 patients in the symptom-triggered group received an average of 100 mg of chlordiazepoxide, whereas patients in the fixed-schedule group received an average of 425 mg. The median duration of treatment in the symptom-triggered group was nine hours, compared with 68 hours in the fixed-schedule group. Patients were excluded from the study if they had concurrent medical or psychiatric illness requiring hospitalization or seizures from any cause.11


Another trial12 yielded similar results, with patients in the fixed-schedule group receiving an average of 231.4 mg of oxazepam and those in the symptom-triggered group receiving an average of 37.5 mg. Of the patients in the symptom-triggered group, 61 percent did not receive any oxazepam. This trial excluded persons with major psychiatric, cognitive, or medical comorbidities.


One randomized controlled trial (RCT)19 affirmed previous findings that carbamazepine is an effective alternative to benzodiazepines in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in patients with mild to moderate symptoms. Patients in the study received 800 mg of carbamazepine on the first day, with the dosage tapered to 200 mg by the fifth day. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) also appears to decrease the craving for alcohol after withdrawal. It is not sedating and has little potential for abuse. Although carbamazepine is used extensively in Europe, its use in the United States has been limited by lack of sufficient evidence that it prevents seizures and delirium.


Some patients achieve dramatic results by joining 12-step groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Other patients benefit from stays in comprehensive treatment facilities, which offer a combination of a 12-step model, cognitive-behavior therapy, and family therapy. The treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome should be supplemented by an individualized, comprehensive treatment program, or at least as many elements of such a program as the patient can tolerate and afford.


Gabapentin, which is structurally similar to GABA, has been effective in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal in small studies.25,26 The low toxicity of gabapentin makes it a promising agent. In another study,27 the anticonvulsant agent vigabatrin, which irreversibly blocks GABA transaminase, improved withdrawal symptoms after only three days of treatment.


A.investigate the various biotic and abiotic factors that are unique to high altitudeB.analyze the soils found in the vicinity of these trees, looking for unique chemicals that may support their growthC.collect data on temperature, wind, and precipitation at several of these locations for a yearD.study the anatomy and physiology of this species


The goal of the study is to look at why we became involved in this work, whatwe actually do for animals, what our goals are in terms of ending animal suffering,and who we, as advocates and activists, are.


I'm a grad student at the University of Edinburgh studying animal behaviourand welfare. My dissertation is looking at attitudes toward farmed animalsand their welfare by different dietary groups (meat eaters, vegetarians andvegans). I was wondering if it would be possible to post the link to my surveyon this site?


The Vegetarian Resource Group greatly appreciates the support given by ourmonthly donors. You can join our monthly giving group with a minimum giftof just $10 a month by going to www.vrg.org/donate. You will be part of anetwork of givers who support our outreach efforts on an ongoing basis. Thesedonations allow us to continue vegan education in a wide variety of venuesincluding schools, doctor and dietitian offices, libraries, various professionalconferences, animal rights events, health fairs, environmental festivals,and much more. Thank you for your support!


During the late 1990s and early 2000s, the U.S. housing market experienced a remarkable boom, which led to sharp increases in residential property taxes. U.S. Census data indicate that from 2000 to 2005, median housing values went up by 50% and median property taxes rose by 30% in real terms.Anecdotal evidence suggests that such unexpected rises in property taxes may induce elderly homeowners, especially those housing-rich but income-poor elderly homeowners, to increase their labor supply by delaying retirement. Unfortunately, there have been no systematic studies investigating thelink between property taxes and elderly labor supply. This paper serves as the first attempt to study this link.


This paper contributes to the property tax literature and the wealth effect literature in several ways. First, to my knowledge, it is the first study to look at how property taxes affect labor supply. Property taxes are the most important tax revenue source for local governments, and propertytax relief programs cost about $10 billion annually in the United States.1 Studying the behavioral impact of property taxes on elderly homeowners isindispensable for any normative analysis of property taxes and property tax relief programs. Second, previous research studying the wealth effect on retirement behavior has exploited variations in Social Security and pension benefits, stock market booms and busts, housing market movements,inheritances, and lottery winnings. This paper complements the existing literature by using property taxes and property tax relief programs as a novel source of variation. Third, while most existing studies focus only on retirement behavior, this paper examines both the extensive margin - whetherrising property taxes induce elderly homeowners to delay retirement or reenter the labor force, and the intensive margin - whether elderly homeowners work longer hours when property taxes increase. By looking beyond retirement decisions, this paper provides more comprehensive evidence on how wealthshocks affect elderly labor supply.


The stock market boom and bust as well as the remarkable housing value run-up in recent years have provided researchers arguably exogenous sources of variation for studying the wealth effect on retirement behavior. Using the HRS data, Coronado and Perozek (2003) find that individuals who heldcorporate equity immediately before the bull market of the 1990s on average retired earlier than those who did not. Sevak (2005) compares individuals with defined contribution pension plans and individuals with defined benefit pension plans. She finds that unexpected gains in wealth during the1990s bull market induced earlier retirement. Using the HRS, Current Population Survey (CPS), and Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), Coile and Levine (2006) exploited both the stock market boom in the late 1990s and the stock market bust in the early 2000s to study the impact of wealth shocks onretirement decisions. They find that the stock market has very little influence on aggregate labor market behavior. Farnham and Sevak (2007) and Goodstein (2008) use cross-MSA variation in housing price movements to identify the wealth effect on retirement timing. They find that increases inhousing wealth raise the probability of retirement significantly.


In summary, the existing literature generally supports the theoretical prediction that labor supply responds to wealth shocks. Nevertheless, the evidence shown in the literature is far from conclusive. Studies that employ difference-in-differences frameworks rely heavily on the assumption thatin absence of the wealth effect, treatment groups and control groups would have the same propensity to retire conditional on covariates. Such an assumption may be too strong in many cases. Even for studies that have reasonably tight identification strategies, the magnitudes of estimated wealtheffects vary considerably from one study to another. As tens of millions of baby-boomers approach retirement age in coming years, the field calls for more research to provide new evidence on this important subject. This paper uses variations in property taxes and property tax relief programs toestimate the wealth effect on elderly labor supply.


In this section, I present the empirical model and estimation results in studying the effect of property taxes on elderly homeowners' decisions to retire, to reenter the labor force, and to increase working hours. Estimations are performed for men and women separately. Robustness checks andextensions are carried out and discussed at the end of this section.


The estimated marginal effects of the other covariates are mostly consistent with our expectation and previous literature's findings. For example, health shocks, approximated by the indicator variable "whether the respondent was recently hospitalized," raise the two-year retirement rate by 5percentage points for both men and women, or a 25 percent increase from the baseline level. Financial wealth is correlated with higher probability of retirement. However, such a correlation should not be interpreted as causal since individuals who have strong desires to retire early may have savedmore aggressively over their life-cycle. In addition, male respondents who have retiree health insurance coverage are more likely to retire than those who do not, but the effect is insignificant for females. Female respondents who have pension coverage are less likely to retire than those who donot, but the effect is insignificant for males. Black and Hispanic women are more likely to retire than white women, although race/ethnicity does not appear to matter among male respondents. Such differences between males and females highlight the importance of analyzing male and female individualsseparately in studying labor supply behavior. 041b061a72


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