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Leon County Democrat Group

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Robert Yates
Robert Yates


The AIM Adolescent Immunization Resource Guide offers a selection of activities and strategies to enhance and improve the delivery of vaccinations throughout adolescence, from middle school to college. Each of the nine chapters offer a menu of adolescent-focused strategies that Immunization Programs can adopt, adapt, or use as inspiration in planning or brainstorming exercises.


The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide) is a collection of evidence-based findings of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force). It is a resource to help you select interventions to improve health and prevent disease in your state, community, community organization, business, healthcare organization, or school.

When you configure your WAF, you can decide how the WAF handles requests that exceed the anomaly score threshold of 5. The three anomaly score action options are block, log, or redirect. The anomaly score action you select at time of configuration will be applied to all requests that exceed the anomaly score threshold.

Mind maps are graphical representations of information. In contrast to the traditional, linear notes you might make in a text document or even on paper, mind maps let you capture thoughts, ideas and keywords on a blank canvas. These ideas are organized in a two-dimensional structure, with the title/main idea always located in the center of the map for visibility. Related ideas branch off from the center in all directions, creating a radiant structure.

The only requirement DISTINCT ON has, is that the leading columns in the ORDER BY clause will match the columns in the DISTINCT ON clause. The remaining columns in the ORDER BY clause are used to determine which row is selected for each group.

The parameters in authinfo are space-separated, in the form key=val. To write an empty value, or a value containing spaces, surround it with single quotes, e.g., keyword='a value'. Single quotes and backslashes within the value must be escaped with a backslash, i.e., \' and \\.

The process used includes elements taken from Natural Language Processing (NLP) to analyze SQL injection payloads, clean and curate them, break them into keywords and find the best relation between them to be able to get new and valuable insights.

As part of the research, we consider each SQL injection payload as a textual document, break each payload into the keywords that compound it, and try to find relations between different keywords across all used SQL injection payloads samples.

The objective of the research is to find new insights based on the relation between SQL injection payloads keywords; once finding relation between keywords, we will explore the opportunity of gaining new insights that might lead to performance improvements and detection of new vulnerabilities being abused in the wild.

The second step of the data mining process is to choose the most frequent words being used. Keywords and template frequency can give us some indication of which SQL keywords are more frequently used in SQL injection payloads. That information can lead to making sure those keywords are properly prioritized to be matched before other payloads.

When processing payload keywords, we should make sure we use the most frequent keywords since processing large data-sets might have computational limitations. In the case of the 7 samples experiment, with a small number of keywords, this limitation is less relevant.

The third step in our data mining process of SQL injection attack payloads would be to start building a matrix that will help express the relation between the different keywords on the different payloads samples.

In order to do that, we built a matrix: each row represents a different SQL injection payload and columns represents all possible keywords. If the keywords were used in a given payload, the value will be one; if not, the value will be zero, as seen in figure number 4.

In order to better represent the relation between different keywords, we transposed the matrix so rows representing different keywords and columns represent different sample payloads, as seen in figure 5.

The distance between each possible pair of keywords is done by using Jaccard distance: the size of the intersection divided by the size of the union of the sample set. The value of the distance between each pair of keywords will be represented as the value between 0 - 1.

When the value is equal to 0, that represents the strongest relation between two keywords. Each time one of the paired keywords appeared on one of the sampled payloads, the other keyword appeared on that payload as well.

For example, as seen in figure number 6, keywords "SELECT" and "FROM" in line number 1, have a strong relation with a Jaccard distance value of 0.2. In order to better understand that value, we can look at figure number 1, which contains the original SQL injection payloads, where "SELECT" appears on 5 of the sampled payloads and the keyword "FROM" appears on 4 of those appearances as well.

The strength of the relation between keywords, such as "SELECT" and "FROM", is not surprising from SQL syntaxial point of view - these keywords are used frequently to express SQL code that query data. This gives us an indication that the initial results represent adequately the hidden relation between examined keywords.

In the following step, we will execute clustering between different pairs of keywords, based on the Jaccard distance, to build an hierarchical clustering that will enable us to have clear visibility to the relationship between all sampled keywords.

Figure 7 shows us that "SELECT" and "FROM" were clustered and that "UNION" was also clustered with them, as according to the data it appears to have a strong relation with them. Each cluster joined distance is increasing as more keywords with reduced strength to the other members of the cluster joined that cluster (as appears in figure number 7 graph horizontal values). The cut-off point (red line on figure number 7) will be determined based on the preferences on cluster strength;, the preference on cluster strength will reflect the size and number of members for each cluster.

In order to avoid computational and performance challenges, only the top 60 most frequently used keywords were used. The outcome shows us some interesting results that align with some of the pre-experiment expectations and validate the accuracy of the result.

We were able to see that keywords "WAITFOR" and "DELAY", which are commonly used to execute variants of an SQL injection attack called blind SQL injection, were clustered with zero distance between them. Zero distance means that, each time the first appears in a SQL injection payload, the other will appear as well. This example validates that the data mining process is working, since from an SQL syntaxial point of view those keywords should be paired to make the SQL functionality of delaying query processing work. On top of that, according to the frequency of keywords, these keywords are in the 5th and 6th place - meaning that any improvement in the performance for security rules that are associated with those keywords will lead to significant positive performance impact.

The second example for validity of the executed data mining process is the clustering of "THEN", "ELSE", and "END". These keywords are known to be used together to create logical conditional statements; therefore, it only makes sense that these keywords appear together in SQL injection payloads.

Looking into the clustering tree also showed some new insights into the relation between keywords that represent SQL columns and tables names. For example, keywords such as "USERS" and "EMAIL" were clustered, "USERS" representing table name while the "EMAIL" representing column name. Those keywords were used as part of a SQL injection vulnerability exploit that was relevant a few years back, this makes sense as the used data was from the past years.

An easy and important way to improve security rules performance would be to use the frequency of the keywords as derived from their usage in the wild. By reshaping security rules to prioritized rules matching order to first try to match rules that contain frequently used keywords will result with higher chances of early matching and improvement in performance. This technique is more relevant to rules matching mechanisms that were implemented as sequential matching and not parallel.

Another improvement in performance can be achieved by using clustered keywords to introduce rules that will avoid or replace the usage of much more complex regular expression rules. For example the "WAITFOR" "DELAY" we used previously; the fact that those keywords are highly related can enable us to execute simple text pattern matching that is known as better in performance when compared to regular expressions matching. Using simple pattern matching and avoiding execution of regular expressions can lead to improvement in performance involved in the effort of rules matching.

A new SQL injection vulnerability, targeting websites in the wild, might result in unique keywords representing specific table and column names to be clustered. This kind of clustering can help with finding those active SQL injection campaigns in the wild being able to detect those vulnerabilities being abused.

While this research returns interesting and insightful outcomes, it can be enhanced to include attributes that can help with crafting more accurate security rules. Such indicators can be the order of the keywords, for example "WAITFOR" "DELAY" that as derived from syntax will always appear in the same order.

Any time you believe a parameter is retrieving information from a database such as a number, for example report.php?id=1 would tell the code to retrieve id 1 from the database, test it for SQL injection! The website may interact with the database in all types of places so be mindful to test for SQL injection in as many places as XSS. As well as this if you discover certain keywords being used in the request, such as select, query, limit, offset, or you discover column names in the request, begin testing for SQL injection. They may be pre-preparing queries which you can attempt to break. 041b061a72


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